Set of PowerPoint and Word templates. The TWI program has proven to be effective in providing shopfloor supervisors and team leaders with the skills they need to engage people in Lean activities. This is a collection of TWI diagrams, pocket cards and templates for Job Instruction (JI), Job Methods (JM), Job Relations (JR), Job Safety (JS) and Problem Solving (PS). These tools and templates are useful for organizations who are preparing or implementing TWI programs. To get the most out of the tools and templates, they are best used together with the TWI four-step process. (NOTE: If you had purchased our TWI Program training program, all the diagrams, pocket cards and templates listed here were already included in the package and you need not purchase them again.) THIS TWI FRAMEWORKS COLLECTION INCLUDE: 1. TWI Frameworks (PowerPoint format) 2. Job Instruction Breakdown Sheet (Word format) 3. Job Instruction Training Timetable (Word format) 4. Job Methods Breakdown Sheet (simple) (Word format) 5. Job Methods Breakdown Sheet (8.5x11) (Word format) 6. Job Methods Breakdown Sheet (8.5x14) (Word format) 7. Job Methods Improvement Proposal Sheet (Word format) 8. Job Relations Situation Analysis Sheet (Word format) 9. Job Safety Breakdown Sheet (Word format) 10. Problem Solving Problem Analysis Sheet (Word format) 11. Problem Solving Causation Analysis Sheet (Word format) 12. JI Pocket Card (PowerPoint format) 13. JM Pocket Card (PowerPoint format) 14. JR Pocket Card (PowerPoint format) 15. JS Pocket Card (PowerPoint format)
This is a 72-slide PowerPoint. Training needs analysis is not a compilation of employees' training wants. Neither is it simply talking to a few supervisors or circulating a memo to supervisors asking them to rank the courses listed. To be effective, a training needs analysis has to address business needs and close performance gaps. With the right approach and understanding, you will be able to conduct an effective training needs analysis that ensures training is targeted at the right competencies, the right employees and is addressing a business need. In this training powerpoint, you will learn the meaning and importance of conducting a training needs analysis, understand the components of a training needs analysis, and acquire detailed knowledge on the nine-step process for conducting a training needs analysis. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Understand the meaning and importance of conducting a Training Needs Analysis 2. Gain knowledge on the components of a Training Needs Analysis 3. Understand the common training and evaluation models 4. Acquire detailed knowledge on the nine-step process for conducting a Training Needs Analysis CONTENTS 1. What Is Training Needs Analysis What is a Need? What is Training Needs Analysis? What Training Needs Analysis Is Not The ADDIE Model What is the Impact of a Poorly Designed Training Needs Analysis? Scope of Training Needs Analysis Classification of Training Needs 2. Components of a Training Needs Analysis Components of a Training Needs Analysis Organizational Needs Analysis Task/Job Analysis Person Analysis The Causes & Outcomes of a Training Needs Analysis Key Concerns of Management and Trainers in Needs Analysis The Kirkpatrick Training Evaluation Model 3. How to Conduct a Training Needs Analysis? Nine Steps of Training Needs Analysis Step 1 - Determine Desired Outcomes Step 2 - Link Desired Outcomes with Employee Behavior Step 3 - Identify Trainable Competencies Step 4 - Evaluate Competencies & Determine Gaps Step 5 - Prioritize Training Needs Step 6 - Determine Training Method Step 7 - Conduct Cost-Benefit Analysis Step 8 - Report Analysis & Findings Step 9 - Plan for Training Evaluation Summary
Many quality improvement programs fail because they were not managed as a total process. Total Quality Process (TQP) teaches you how to approach quality or any change initiative as a company-wide effort. You will learn how to make a commitment, plan and begin to implement systems for managing quality that integrates all the people, processes/systems and continuous improvement initiatives together. Based on Philip Crosby's methodology, what this presentation guide will focus is not a new quality control system, but a company-wide approach to total quality. A process for total quality must comprise Quality Management and Quality Improvement. The Total Quality Process (TQP) introduced in this presentation is based on Five Quality Principles and establishes Four Key Activities for Quality Management. TQP is designed to involve every employee in your company in quality improvement efforts. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Explain the Principles of Quality 2. Describe the TQP framework (\"House of Quality\") 3. Define the Four Key Activities for managing quality 4. Explain the need for a culture change, starting at the top 5. Demonstrate a personal commitment to total quality 6. Explain the TQP implementation infrastructure 7. Describe how to put the systems for TQP into motion 8. Identify ways to sustain TQP activities 9. Understand a manager's role in quality improvement CONTENTS 1. Goals of TQP 2. Understanding the Principles of Quality 3. The TQP Framework 4. Four Key Activities 5. Making a Commitment 6. Planning for TQP - Form a TQP Implementation Team - Create Quality Awareness - Educate Everyone - Prepare for Goal Setting 7. Putting Systems into Motion - Set up Work Process Measurements - Measure Quality (Cost of Quality) - Form Quality Action Teams for Solving Problems - Recognize Participation 8. Keeping it Going - Ensure Activities are Ongoing - Review and Recognize Quality Management Team?s Success 9. Management's Role in TQP 10. Strategies for Success Got a question about the product? Email us at email@example.com or ask the author directly by using the form to the right. If you cannot view the preview above this document description, go here to view the large preview instead.
This is a 153-slide PowerPoint. This presentation is a collection of PowerPoint diagrams and templates used to convey 40 different total quality management frameworks/models. (Please note that the materials are meant to be used to supplement your own business or classroom presentations. These slides may not be complete for instructional purposes.) FRAMEWORKS/MODELS INCLUDE: 1. Deming's 14 Points for Management 2. Juran's 10 Steps to Quality Improvement 3. Crosby's Four Absolutes of Quality 4. Ishikawa's Six Principles for Quality Transformation 5. Toyota's 14 Management Principles ("The Toyota Way") 6. Baldrige Excellence Framework 7. EFQM Excellence Model 8. Australian Business Excellence Framework 9. Canadian Framework for Business Excellence 10 Deming Prize Framework 11. Singapore Business Excellence Framework 12. Total Quality Management Model (Oakland) 13. ISO 9001 Quality Management Model 14. Kano Model 15. Balanced Scorecard 16. Hoshin Kanri Strategy Deployment 17. Xerox Benchmarking Model 18. Deming Cycle (PDCA Cycle) 19. PDCA Problem Solving Process 20. 8D (Eight Disciplines) Problem Solving Process 21. Cause & Effect Diagram 22. Six Sigma 23. Cost of Quality Model 24. 1-10-100 Rule 25. Mistake Proofing Process 26. The Seven QC Tools 27. Process Model 28. Business Process Reengineering (BPR) 29. APQC Process Classification Framework (PCF) 30. Customer Journey Mapping 31. RATER Model for Service Quality 32. The Toyota Production System 33. Five Principles of Lean 34. Eight Types of Waste 35. Six Steps of Kaizen 36. House of Gemba 37. Gemba Framework 38. 5S Principles 39. Covey's Seven Habits Model 40. Kotter's Eight Phases of Change
This is a 144-slide PowerPoint. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a holistic approach to long-term success that views continuous improvement in all aspects of an organization as a process and not as a short-term goal. It aims to radically transform the organization through progressive changes in the attitudes, practices, systems and structures. By teaching this presentation, employees will understand the importance of making a personal commitment to quality, focus on satisfying both internal and external customer requirements, and working as a team to improve quality. This training presentation includes quality philosophies from key quality leaders such as W. E. Deming, J. M. Juran and Philip Crosby, and provides a summary of process management, steps for TQM implementation, key tools and techniques for total quality as well as the key business excellence and quality management models. CONTENTS: 1. Introduction to TQM 2. Customer Focus 3. Employee Involvement & Empowerment 4. Process Management 5. Business Excellence & Quality Management Models 6. Total Quality Leadership 7. Implementing TQM 8. Tools & Techniques for Total Quality 9. Summary
This is a 230-slide PowerPoint. BENEFITS OF DOCUMENT Comprehensive training guide on TPM implementation. Learn how to apply the TPM tools effectively. Learn how to kick-start TPM deployment with Autonomous Maintenance, Planned Maintenance, Focused Improvement and Education & Training activities to improve equipment reliability. DOCUMENT DESCRIPTION As a company-wide initiative, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) maximizes the effectiveness of equipment. The TPM program significantly increases labor and capital productivity while, at the same time, increases employee morale and job satisfaction. TPM brings maintenance into focus as a necessary and vitally important part of the business. Targeted at all levels of the organization, TPM and its 8 Pillars provide the necessary supporting process and tools to achieve zero defects, zero breakdowns and zero accidents. Developed by our JIPM-certified TPM consultant, this presentation combines the TPM tools, 5S, OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) and 8 pillars into a highly detailed training tool. This PowerPoint includes a step-by-step implementation process of TPM. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: 1. Understand the concept and management philosophy of TPM as a foundation for Lean Transformation 2. Learn the 8 pillars of TPM activities, TPM implementation strategy, roadmap and step-by-step approach 3. Learn the TPM tools and be able to identify and eliminate loss through TPM implementation 4. Learn how to kick-start TPM deployment with Autonomous Maintenance, Planned Maintenance, Focused Improvement and Education & Training activities to improve equipment reliability 5. Understand the roles of a TPM implementation organization and the critical success factors CONTENTS: 1. Overview of TPM 2. TPM Foundations: 5S & Visual Management 3. TPM Tools 4. Equipment Loss & Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) 5. Eight Pillars of TPM 6. TPM Implementation Related training presentations that you may be interested: 1. Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) 2. Autonomous Maintenance 3. TPM Team Guide: How to Start & Sustain TPM Team Activities 3. TPM Self-assessment Guide & Tool
A document that provides key information about the People Side of Change & Change Resistance including People and Change (Common Sense & Mismanagement, Individual Feelings and Attitudes, Change vs Stability, the BPS Effect, Distribution of Change Reactions, Jungian Theory & Change People Types, The Kubler Ross Curve, The Head, Heart & Soul of Change). Change Resistance (Two Types of Resistance, Symptoms of Resistance, Reasons for Resistance, Reading the Signs of Resistance, Feelings that need to be Addressed, what you Think and what you Feel, How to Tackle Change Resistance). Got a question about the product? Email us at firstname.lastname@example.org or ask the author directly by using the form to the right. If you cannot view the preview above this document description, go here to view the large preview instead.
A document describing the key elements of Project Planning including What is a Project, What is Project Management, What is a Programme, What is Project Initiation and Planning, What is the point of Project Planning, Why Projects go Wrong (what Should and what could happen), Identifying Risks and Issues, Risk Management, Project Initiation Document, Project Deliverables, Project Plan (Tasks, Estimates, Resources, Dependencies), Gannt Chart (non Rolled Up, partially Rolled Up, Fully Rolled Up), Business Case and Business Benefits, Costs (Cashflow, Cost/Benefit Analysis, Pay-back Period), Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, Sensitivity Analysis, Parameters (Objectives, Scope, Exclusions, Constraints), People and Project Organisation Structure. Got a question about the product? Email us at email@example.com or ask the author directly by using the form to the right. If you cannot view the preview above this document description, go here to view the large preview instead.
This is a 38-slide PowerPoint. The Ten Schools of Thought model from Henry Mintzberg is a framework that can be used to categorize the field of Strategic Management. It describes each school in context and provides a critique. Thus, it acts as a very good overview to the entire field of Strategic Management. While academics and consultants keep focusing on these narrow perspectives, business managers will be better served if they strive to see the wider picture. Some of strategic management's greatest failings, in fact, occurred when one of these concepts was taken too seriously. These 10 Schools of Thought are as follows: *The Design School *The Planning School *The Positioning School *The Entrepreneurial School *The Cognitive School *The Learning School *The Power School *The Cultural School *The Environmental School *The Configuration School This document explains each School, its origins, benefit and limitations, related analyses/frameworks, and other attributes. Also includes PowerPoint templates for illustrating this model in your presentation.
This is a 59-slide PowerPoint with accompanying Word templates The TWI Problem Solving (PS) program trains supervisors in how to solve problems in order to achieve the desired results. Based on the TWI four-step model, the TWI-PS program integrates and elevates the three original TWI skills (JI, JM and JR) into a problem-solving focus. This training presentation teaches you how to isolate the problem and then analyze the problem from the mechanical and people angles to find the root causes. Solutions are identified and prioritized to correct the problem. The results are checked and evaluated for the desired impact. This Training Package Includes: 1. TWI Problem Solving Slides (PowerPoint format) 2. Problem Analysis Sheet (Word format) 3. Causation Analysis Sheet (Word format) 4. Job Methods Breakdown Sheet (Word format) 5. Job Instruction Breakdown Sheet (Word format) 6. Job Relations Problem Solving Sheet (Word format) LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Solve problems based on the 4-Step Process for PS 2. Apply the Problem Analysis Sheet and the Causation Analysis Sheet to analyze and identify root causes 3. Apply the JI, JM and JR skills and tools to solve the problem CONTENTS Basic Needs of Supervisors Supervisor's Responsibilities Introduction to Problem Solving Objective of Problem Solving Results from PS Training Comparison of Toyota & TWI Problem Solving Steps What Is a Problem? 4 Steps for Problem Solving Step 1: Isolate the Problem Problem Analysis Sheet Causation Analysis Sheet Step 2: Prepare for Solution Mechanical Problems People Problems Step 3: Correct the Problem Step 4: Check and Evaluate Results Summary
The Training Within Industry (TWI) Job Relations (JR) program teaches supervisors how to evaluate and take proper actions to handle and to prevent people problems. This skill in leading helps the supervisor to improve his ability in working with people. There are basic principles that, when applied day in and day out, will tend to keep relations smooth and prevent problems from arising. By pointing out the ways that problems do arise one can readily see that preventive action can be taken. This applies particularly in anticipating changes that may not be readily accepted and in sensing changes in output, attitudes, and relationships. However, when problems do arise, there is an organized procedure to handle such problems that helps get better results from the action we take. TWI Job Relations teaches supervisors the four steps for effective leadership. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Understand the importance and benefits of Job Relations 2. Define the foundations for good relations 3. Explain how to improve Job Relations based on the 4-Step method for JR 4. Define the approach to get feelings and opinions CONTENTS 1. Understanding Supervisory Responsibility and the Individual 2. Foundations for Good Relations 3. The "Joe Smith" Problem (case study) 4. The Four Step Method for Job Relations 5. The importance of GETTING THE FACTS 6. The importance of WEIGH AND DECIDE 7. The importance of TAKE ACTION 8. The importance of CHECK RESULTS 9. Practice Demonstrations on each of the four steps 10. How to Get Feelings & Opinions 11. How to See Problems Coming 12. Summary and Closing 13. Appendix - Introduction to TWI Got a question about the product? Email us at firstname.lastname@example.org or ask the author directly by using the form to the right. If you cannot view the preview above this document description, go here to view the large preview instead.
This is a 78-slide PowerPoint. The TWI Job Methods (JM) program teaches supervisors how to improve methods for producing greater quantities of quality products in less time by effectively using available workforce, machines and materials. Participants are taught how to break down jobs into their constituent operations. Every detail is questioned in a systematic manner to generate ideas for improvement. New methods are developed by eliminating, combining, rearranging, and simplifying steps in the process. Job Methods yields significant benefits including reduced cost through productivity gains, increased throughput, and reduced work in process. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Improve job methods based on the 4-Step Process for JM 2. Apply the Job Breakdown Sheet to analyze the current method and develop the new method 3. Utilize the JM Improvement Proposal Sheet to communicate and gain buy in to the new method CONTENTS 1. Introduction to TWI - JM 2. Definition of a Supervisor 3. 5 Basic Needs of Supervisors 4. Demonstration Job: Current Design & New Design 5. 4 Steps for Job Methods Improvement 6. Step 1: Breakdown the Job 7. Job Breakdown Sheet (JM) 8. Step 2: Question Every Detail 9. 5W1H Questions 10. Step 3: Develop the New Method 11. Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange & Simplify (ECRS Framework) 12. Principles Under Simplify 13. JM Improvement Proposal Sheet 14. Step 4: Apply the New Method 15. Examples of Ideas for Improvement 16. Practice Demonstrations: Job Breakdown for Present & Proposed Methods 17. Resistance & Resentment 18. Review of 4 Steps for JM 19. Summary & Closing Comments
The TWI Job Instruction (JI) program reinforces the practice of Lean Standard Work and teaches supervisors how to quickly train employees to do a job correctly, safely and conscientiously. This tried and tested methodology is based on the 4-Step Method of Job Instruction and utilizes tools such as the Job Breakdown Sheet and Training Timetable. These work standards then provide the foundation for employee engagement, continuous improvement and problem solving. As a trainer/coach, you will learn how to set the stage for instruction, effectively demonstrate the task, observe and coach the operator and taper off coaching with proper follow-up. Benefits experienced when practicing Job Instruction are reduced training time, less scrap and rework, fewer accidents, and increased job satisfaction. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Conduct training based on the 4-Step Method of Job Instruction 2. Apply the Job Breakdown process to define the important steps, key points and reasons used 3. Utilize a Time Table for Training to identify, prioritize and schedule the training necessary for productivity improvement CONTENTS 1. Introduction to Job Instruction 2. Role of Supervisors in Lean Transformation 3. Five Needs of Good Supervisors 4. Workforce Instruction - Two Ineffective Methods 5. Four Steps of Job Instruction 6. Four Steps to Get Ready 7. Job Breakdown - Important Steps, Key Points & Reasons 8. Training Timetables 9. Special Instruction Problems (and how to handle them) 10. Standard Work & Problem Solving 11. How to Implement Job Instruction Got a question about the product? Email us at email@example.com or ask the author directly by using the form to the right. If you cannot view the preview above this document description, go here to view the large preview instead.
This is a 148-slide PowerPoint. Many companies have launched the TPM initiative as a means to achieve world-class manufacturing excellence. However, many teams often encounter difficulties in kick-starting and sustaining TPM activities because of the lack of proper guidance, practical know-how and adequate management support. How do you organize TPM teams? How do you run the activities to achieve the TPM objectives? What are the necessary skills, motivation and environment that have to be created to ensure a thriving TPM culture? This PowerPoint training guide, developed by our JIPM-certified TPM consultant, teaches supervisors, workgroup leaders and operators how to develop the team-based skills required for effective and sustainable TPM implementation. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Understand the concept and management philosophy of TPM and team activities 2. Acquire practical tips for managing TPM 3. Learn how to kick start,manage and sustain TPM team activities 4. Acquire knowledge on the useful tools for TPM team activities CONTENTS 1. TPM & Team Activities 2. Practical Tips for Managing TPM 3. Managing TPM Team Activities 4. Keeping TPM Team Activities Alive 5. Tools for TPM Team Activities 6. Questions for Discussion
The Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Excellence Award is conferred by the Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance (JIPM) to recognize organizations that have attained a high level of manufacturing excellence. The TPM excellence initiative helps organizations to know where they are on the excellence journey and what they need to do to achieve a higher level of performance. This is done through a thorough assessment of organizational performance against the requirements of an internationally benchmarked TPM excellence framework. HOW TO USE THE TPM SELF-ASSESSMENT GUIDE & TOOL Use the guidebook to help you perform the TPM self-assessment process. Use the tool to benchmark your organization's TPM performance in ten areas of evaluation based on the TPM excellence criteria and checklist items. The total score will give you a baseline of where you are, and the identified strengths and areas for improvement will help you chart an action plan to improve overall performance. OBJECTIVES By the end of this self-assessment program, you will be able to: 1. Understand the TPM framework based on the JIPM standard for world-class manufacturing excellence 2. Define the TPM Criteria and Evaluation Areas 3. Describe the Point Values and Scoring Guidelines 4. Conduct a systematic TPM self-assessment and identify areas for improvement 5. Establish a baseline position so you can measure your progress over time CONTENTS 1. Overview of the TPM Excellence Model 2. Criteria for TPM Excellence 3. Award Criteria Guidance Points 4. Scoring Guidelines 5. TPM Self-assessment 6. Post TPM Self-assessment NOTE: This package consists of a TPM self-assessment guidebook (Primary document) and a TPM self-assessment tool (Secondary document). Related training presentations that you may be interested: 1. Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) 2. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) 3. Autonomous Maintenance Got a question about the product? Email us at firstname.lastname@example.org or ask the author directly by using the form to the right. If you cannot view the preview above this document description, go here to view the large preview instead.
A document describing how to successfully create and complete a Project Highlight Report including the Template (blank and example completed), how to fill it in (the bits that rarely change, the bits that might change depending on the Project and the bits that regularly change), RAG status, items for escalation requiring Management action, Expenditure and Benefits, Developments/Achievements/Targets, Milestones, Risk and Issues. Got a question about the product? Email us at email@example.com or ask the author directly by using the form to the right. If you cannot view the preview above this document description, go here to view the large preview instead.
This is a 147-slide PowerPoint. This training course provides a fresh and novel perspective into the realm of strategic planning. Basically, it redefines the success formula for Strategic Planning. Main objective is to pursue success and avoid failure more systematically. Success and failure are demystified with this training course. One of many examples addressed is the statistical fact in the USA and Europe that some 45% of SME start-up businesses fail after three years of launch. This training material looks at the cited causes of failure of SMEs and explains this phenomenon, and presents the remedy formula. Presentation incorporates multiple novel templates and matrices. It deals with organizational success, including SMEs, but also success and failure of of individuals. Training course can be used as a TEMPLATE INTRODUCTION to any business and management training, including strategic planning and management, business plan, market research, marketing strategy, balanced scorecard, blue ocean marketing, business model, innovation, how to be successful etc. Success Appraisal CHECKLISTS are incorporated in the final section for immediate checking, for the purpose of identifying the elements that are missing in your current success combination. Separate checklists are provided for businesses and for individuals. This success system was developed by Dr. Stephen M. Sweid, a business consultant, researcher and trainer with over 20 years consulting experience on the international scene: Europe, USA, Middle East and Far East. >>> This material can be also delivered as in-house training course or workshop by the same consultant / trainer. TABLE OF CONTENTS: MAIN TITLES OF SLIDES 1st Principle of Success: Coupling 2nd Principle of Success: Combination Working System Model Organizational Success Components Personal Success Components Risk Matrix: How to push your limits Recap: Steps To Take To Succeed Proofs of Systemic Approach Innovation System Innovation Supreme The Many Reasons for Failure of SME businesses Example: Success Criteria for Small Projects New Definition of Luck Success: System Level Failure: Component Level Recap of Success and Failure How to Avoid Failure Success Appraisal Checklists About Consultant & Trainer
This is a 35-slide PowerPoint. This presentation is a detailed guide to Strategy Development, covering strategy concepts from military strategists (eg. Sun Tzu's Art of War) to modern day strategy development thought leaders (Mintzberg and Bower). Breaks down a 3-phase approach to Strategy Development, including hierarchical challenges, activities, and deliverables. This document is divided into 5 sections: * Strategy Overview (3 slides) * Lessons from Military Strategists (4 slides) * Strategy Development Fundamentals (7 slides) * Elements of Strategy Development (8 slides) * Strategy Development Approach (11 slides)
This is a 26-slide PowerPoint. A strategy is the integrated array of distinctive choices made by a company to develop and sustain a winning proposition in the market place (value, difference, position, effectiveness). This presentation proposes a practical definition of strategy development. It also identifies critical success factors and guiding principles for effective strategy development. This deck shows how strategy development relies on a systematic logical flow (insights/options/response) that seeks answer 3 fundamental questions: 1. What are the opportunities offered by the market and how well positioned is the company to capture them? 2. What are the company's options to shape or adapt to the market conditions to its best advantage? 3. What select few priorities will the company need to focus on and how in order to win? This deck also introduces the 4 key outcomes of strategy development: * A robust and creative strategy that clearly identifies the select priorities to drive success. * Organizational understanding, momentum, and enthusiasm. * Strategic actions embedded in day-to-day business. * Reinforced capability to adapt and evolve as market and industry develop.
This is a 15-slide PowerPoint. Strategic Sourcing (also known as Sourcing Strategy or Procurement Strategy) allows an organization to realize significant savings by evaluating its procurement costs across a number of spend categories. This document details a 4-phase framework to Strategic Sourcing, outlining time frames, activities, and outputs. The approach adopted includes the following phases: 1. Assessment Snapshot 2. Spend Analysis 3. Category Sourcing 4. Implementation Each phase is explained in detail, including a breakdown of sub processes and activities. This framework can be applied to both Commodity and Specialty spend categories.