### Introduction to Valves Basic Course (Course)

Learn about valve components, designs and applications! Ideal for Oil and Gas, HVAC and every other industry! Ever wondered: Why do we need so many different valve types? What kind of valve is correct for x,y,z application? What are the pros and cons of each valve type? Why do valves have weird names i.e. butterfly valve? This course will help you answer all these questions...and many more! The course is designed to take you from zero to hero concerning valve knowledge. Even if you already have some background knowledge, this course will serve as an efficient refresher. Whatever your level of understanding, or engineering background (oil & gas, marine, power etc.), I can guarantee you will have never taken an engineering course like this one. Interactive 3D models are used extensively to show you exactly how valves and their components work. The course is packed with 2D images, 2D animations and 3D animations. Written content has been read aloud so that you can 'learn on the go' without needing to watch the screen constantly. I have also posted a FREE Valve App on Google Play and iTunes that will help you consolidate what you have learnt (search for 'savree valves' or 'control valve'). I hope to see you on the course! All the best, Jon saVRee.com

### Power Cycle Components/Processes Ideal vs Real Operation Analysis

The power cycle components/processes (compression, combustion and expansion) are presented in this course material.In the presented power cycle components/processes analysis, air is used as the working fluid. For compression and expansion, the technical performance of mentioned power cycle components/processes for ideal and real operation is presented with a given relationship between pressure and temperature and compression and expansion efficiency. Complete combustion at constant pressure with and without heat loss is presented. Six different fuels (carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, coal, oil and gas) react with air as the oxidant at different stoichiometry values (stoichiometry => 1) and oxidant inlet temperature values. Reactants and combustion products specific enthalpy values change with an increase in the temperature and such enthalpy values are presented in a plot where one can notice the flame temperature definition. Physical properties of basic combustion reactants and products species are presented in an enthalpy vs temperature plot. The combustion technical performance at stoichiometry => 1 conditions is presented knowing the specific enthalpy values for combustion reactants and products, given as a function of temperature.Combustion products composition on both weight and mole basis is given in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. Also, flame temperature, oxidant to fuel ratio and fuel higher heating value (HHV) are presented in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. The provided output data and plots allow one to determine the major combustion performance laws and trends. In this course material, the student gets familiar with the power cycle components/processes, their T - s and h - T diagrams, ideal and real operation and major performance trends.

### Power Cycles and Power Cycle Components/Processes Analysis

The ideal, simple and basic power cycles (Carnot Cycle, Brayton Cycle for both power and propulsion applications, Otto Cycle and Diesel Cycle) and ideal power cycle components/processes (compression, combustion and expansion) are presented in this course material. In the presented power cycles and power cycle components/process analysis, air is used as the working fluid. For each power cycle thermal efficiency derivation is presented with a simple mathematical approach. Also, for each power cycle, a T - s diagram and power cycle major performance trends (thermal efficiency, specific power output and power output) are plotted in a few figures as a function of compression ratio, turbine inlet temperature and/or final combustion temperature and working fluid mass flow rate. It should be noted that this course material does not deal with costs (capital, operational or maintenance). For compression and expansion, the technical performance of mentioned power cycle components/processes is presented with a given relationship between pressure and temperature. While for combustion, the technical performance at stoichiometric conditions is presented knowing the specific enthalpy values for combustion reactants and products, given as a function of temperature. This course material provides the compression and expansion T - s diagrams and their major performance trends plotted in a few figures as a function of compression and expansion pressure ratio and working fluid mass flow rate. For each combustion case considered, combustion products composition on both weight and mole basis is given in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. Also, flame temperature, stoichiometric oxidant to fuel ratio and fuel higher heating value (HHV) are presented in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. The provided output data and plots allow one to determine the major combustion performance laws and trends. In this course material, the student gets familiar with the ideal simple and basic power cycles and power cycle components/processes and their T - s and h - T diagrams, operation and major performance trends.

### Power Cycles and Power Cycle Components/Processes Ideal vs Real Operation Analysis

The simple and basic power cycles (Brayton Cycle, Otto Cycle and Diesel Cycle) and power cycle components/processes (compression, combustion and expansion) are presented in this course material.In the presented power cycles and power cycle components/process analysis, air is used as the working fluid. For each power cycle, the thermal efficiency derivation is presented with a simple mathematical approach.Also, for each power cycle, a T - s diagram and cycle major performance trends (thermal efficiency, specific power output and power output) are plotted in a few figures as a function of compression ratio, turbine inlet temperature and/or final combustion temperature, working fluid mass flow rate and both isentropic compression and expansion efficiency.It should be noted that this course material does not deal with costs (capital, operational or maintenance). For compression and expansion, the technical performance of mentioned power cycle components/processes for ideal and real operation is presented with a given relationship between pressure and temperature and compression and expansion efficiency. Complete combustion at constant pressure with and without heat loss is presented. Six different fuels (carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, coal, oil and gas) react with air as the oxidant at different stoichiometry values (stoichiometry => 1) and oxidant inlet temperature values. Reactants and combustion products specific enthalpy values change with an increase in the temperature and such specific enthalpy values are presented in a plot where one can notice the flame temperature definition. Physical properties of basic combustion reactants and products species are presented in a specific enthalpy vs temperature plot. The combustion technical performance at stoichiometry => 1 conditions is presented knowing the specific enthalpy values for combustion reactants and products, given as a function of temperature.Combustion products composition on both weight and mole basis is given in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. Also, flame temperature, oxidant to fuel ratio and fuel higher heating value (HHV) are presented in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. The provided output data and plots allow one to determine the major combustion performance laws and trends. In this course material, the student gets familiar with the simple and basic power cycles and power cycle components/processes and their T - s and h - T diagrams, ideal vs real operation and major performance trends.

### Power Cycle Components/Processes Analysis

The ideal power cycle components/processes (compression, combustion and expansion) are presented in this course material. In the presented power cycle components/processes analysis, air is used as the working fluid. For compression and expansion, the technical performance of mentioned power cycle components/processes is presented with a given relationship between pressure and temperature. While for combustion, the technical performance at stoichiometric conditions is presented knowing the specific enthalpy values for combustion reactants and products, given as a function of temperature. This course provides the compression and expansion T - s diagrams and their major performance trends plotted in a few figures as a function of compression and expansion ratio and working fluid mass flow rate. For each combustion case considered, combustion products composition on both weight and mole basis is given in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. Also, flame temperature, stoichiometric oxidant to fuel ratio and fuel higher heating value (HHV) are presented in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. The provided output data and plots allow one to determine the major combustion performance laws and trends. In this course material, the student gets familiar with the ideal power cycle components/processes, their T - s and h - T diagrams, operation and major performance trends.

### Combustion Ideal vs Real Operation Analysis

Combustion is a process of active oxidation of combustible compounds such as:carbon, hydrogen and sulfur. Therefore, combustion is a chemical reaction. High amount of heat is released during the combustion process. Combustion has a high degree of importance in engineering. Complete combustion at constant pressure with and without heat loss is presented. Six different fuels (carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, coal, oil and gas) react with air as the oxidant at different stoichiometry values (stoichiometry => 1) and oxidant inlet temperature values. Reactants and combustion products enthalpy values change with an increase in the temperature and such enthalpy values are presented in a plot where one can notice fuel higher heating value (HHV) and flame temperature definitions. Physical properties of basic combustion reactants and products are presented in an enthalpy vs temperature plot. The combustion technical performance at stoichiometry => 1 conditions is presented knowing the enthalpy values for combustion reactants and products, given as a function of temperature. Combustion products composition on both weight and mole basis is given in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. Also, flame temperature, oxidant to fuel ratio and fuel higher heating value (HHV) are presented in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. The provided output data and plots allow one to determine the major combustion performance laws and trends. In this course material, the student gets familiar with complete combustion of carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, coal, oil and gas, with and without heat loss, with air as the oxidant at different stoichiometry values (stoichiometry => 1) and oxidant input temperature values, physical properties of combustion reactants and products, combustion products composition on both weight and mole basis, flame temperature, oxidant to fuel ratio and higher heating value (HHV),. As a result, basic combustion performance trends are presented.

### Advanced Power Cycle Components/Processes Analysis

The ideal power cycle components/processes (compression, combustion and expansion) are presented in this course material. When dealing with power cycle components/processes (compression and expansion), air, argon, helium and nitrogen are used as the working fluid. When dealing with combustion, six different fuels (carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, coal, oil and gas) react with air and oxygen enriched air as the oxidant at different stoichiometry values (stoichiometry => 1) and oxidant inlet temperature values. For compression and expansion, the technical performance of mentioned power cycle components/processes is presented with a given relationship between pressure and temperature. While for combustion, the technical performance at stoichiometry => 1 conditions and is presented knowing the specific enthalpy values for combustion reactants and products, given as a function of temperature. This course material provides the compression and expansion T - s diagrams and their major performance trends plotted in a few figures as a function of compression and expansion pressure ratio and working fluid mass flow rate. For each combustion case considered, combustion products composition on both weight and mole basis is given in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. Also, flame temperature, stoichiometric oxidant to fuel ratio and fuel higher heating value (HHV) are presented in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. The provided output data and plots allow one to determine the major combustion performance laws and trends. In this course material, the student gets familiar with the ideal power cycle components/processes and their T - s and h - T diagrams, operation and major performance trends.

### Advanced Otto Cycle and Combustion Analysis

The ideal cycle for a simple gasoline engine is the Otto Cycle.In this course material, the open, simple Otto Cycle used for stationary power generation and combustion are presented. For Otto Cycle, only air is used as the working fluid. When dealing with combustion, six different fuels (carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, coal, oil and gas) react with air and oxygen enriched air as the oxidant at different stoichiometry values (stoichiometry => 1) and oxidant inlet temperature values. For Otto Cycle, thermal efficiency derivation is presented with a simple mathematical approach.Also, p - V and T - s diagrams and power cycle major performance trends (thermal efficiency, specific power output, power output, combustion products composition on weight and mole basis, specific fuel consumption and stoichiometry) are plotted in a few figures as a function of compression ratio and combustion temperature. It should be noted that this course material does not deal with costs (capital, operational or maintenance). The combustion technical performance at stoichiometry => 1 conditions is presented knowing the specific enthalpy values for combustion reactants and products, given as a function of temperature. Combustion products composition on both weight and mole basis is given in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. Also, flame temperature, oxidant to fuel ratio and fuel higher heating value (HHV) are presented in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. The provided output data and plots allow one to determine the major combustion performance laws and trends. In this course material, the student gets familiar with the ideal Otto Cycle and combustion and their p - V, T - s and h - T diagrams, operation and major performance trends.

### Advanced Energy Conversion Analysis

The ideal, simple and basic power cycles (Carnot Cycle, Brayton Cycle, Otto Cycle and Diesel Cycle), ideal power cycle components/processes (compression, combustion and expansion) and ideal compressible flow components (subsonic nozzle, diffuser and thrust) are presented in this course material. When dealing with power cycles two different approaches are taken with respect to the working fluid. For Carnot Cycle and Brayton Cycle, air, argon, helium and nitrogen are considered as the working fluid. For Otto Cycle and Diesel Cycle, only air is used as the working fluid. When dealing with power cycle components/processes (compression and expansion) and compressible flow (nozzle, diffuser and thrust), air, argon, helium and nitrogen are used as the working fluid. When dealing with combustion, six different fuels (carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, coal, oil and gas) react with air and oxygen enriched air as the oxidant at different stoichiometry values (stoichiometry => 1) and oxidant inlet temperature values. For each power cycle thermal efficiency derivation is presented with a simple mathematical approach. Also, for each power cycle, a T - s diagram and power cycle major performance trends (thermal efficiency, specific power output, power output, combustion products composition on weight and mole basis, specific fuel consumption and stoichiometry) are plotted in a few figures as a function of compression ratio, turbine inlet temperature and/or final combustion temperature and working fluid mass flow rate. It should be noted that this online course does not deal with costs (capital, operational or maintenance). For compression and expansion, the technical performance of mentioned power cycle components/processes is presented with a given relationship between pressure and temperature. While for combustion, the technical performance at stoichiometry => 1 conditions is presented knowing the specific enthalpy values for combustion reactants and products, given as a function of temperature. This course provides the compression and expansion T - s diagrams and their major performance trends plotted in a few figures as a function of compression and expansion pressure ratio and working fluid mass flow rate. For each combustion case considered, combustion products composition on both weight and mole basis is given in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. Also, flame temperature, stoichiometric oxidant to fuel ratio and fuel higher heating value (HHV) are presented in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. The provided output data and plots allow one to determine the major combustion performance laws and trends. For subsonic nozzle, diffuser and thrust, the technical performance of mentioned compressible flow components is presented with a given relationship between temperature and pressure as a function of the Mach Number. This course provides the compressible flow components T - s diagrams and their major performance trends (stagnation over static temperature and pressure ratio values) are plotted in a few figures as a function of the Mach Number. In this course material, the student gets familiar with the ideal simple and basic power cycles, power cycle components/processes and compressible flow components and their T - s and h - T diagrams, operation and major performance trends.

### Advanced Power Cycles and Combustion Analysis

The ideal, simple and basic power cycles (Carnot Cycle, Brayton Cycle, Otto Cycle and Diesel Cycle) and combustion are presented in this course material. When dealing with power cycles two different approaches are taken with respect to the working fluid. For Carnot Cycle and Brayton Cycle, air, argon, helium and nitrogen are considered as the working fluid. For Otto Cycle and Diesel Cycle, only air is used as the working fluid. When dealing with combustion, six different fuels (carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, coal, oil and gas) react with air and oxygen enriched air as the oxidant at different stoichiometry values (stoichiometry => 1) and oxidant inlet temperature values. For each power cycle thermal efficiency derivation is presented with a simple mathematical approach. Also, for each power cycle, a T - s diagram and power cycle major performance trends (thermal efficiency, specific power output, power output, combustion products composition on weight and mole basis, specific fuel consumption and stoichiometry) are plotted in a few figures as a function of compression ratio, turbine inlet temperature and/or final combustion temperature and working fluid mass flow rate. It should be noted that this course material does not deal with costs (capital, operational or maintenance). The combustion technical performance at stoichiometry => 1 conditions is presented knowing the specific enthalpy values for combustion reactants and products, given as a function of temperature. Combustion products composition on both weight and mole basis is given in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. Also, flame temperature, oxidant to fuel ratio and fuel higher heating value (HHV) are presented in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. The provided output data and plots allow one to determine the major combustion performance laws and trends. In this course material, the student gets familiar with the ideal simple and basic power cycles and combustion and their T - s and h - T diagrams, operation and major performance trends.

### Advanced Diesel Cycle and Combustion Analysis

The ideal cycle for a simple diesel engine is the Diesel Cycle. In this course material, the open, simple Diesel Cycle used for stationary power generation and combustion are presented. For Diesel Cycle, only air is used as the working fluid. When dealing with combustion, six different fuels (carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, coal, oil and gas) react with air and oxygen enriched air as the oxidant at different stoichiometry values (stoichiometry => 1) and oxidant inlet temperature values. For Diesel Cycle, thermal efficiency derivation is presented with a simple mathematical approach. The Diesel Cycle is presented in the p - V and T - s diagrams and its major performance trends (thermal efficiency, specific power output, power output, combustion products composition on weight and mole basis, specific fuel consumption and stoichiometry) are plotted in a few figures as a function of compression and cut off ratio values, combustor outlet temperature and some fixed cylinder geometry. It should be noted that this course material does not deal with costs (capital, operational or maintenance). The combustion technical performance at stoichiometry => 1 conditions is presented knowing the specific enthalpy values for combustion reactants and products, given as a function of temperature. Combustion products composition on both weight and mole basis is given in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. Also, flame temperature, oxidant to fuel ratio and fuel higher heating value (HHV) are presented in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. The provided output data and plots allow one to determine the major combustion performance laws and trends. In this course material, the student gets familiar with the Diesel Cycle and combustion and their p - V, T - s and h - T diagrams, operation and major performance trends.

### Advanced Combustion Analysis

Combustion is a process of active oxidation of combustible compounds such as: carbon, hydrogen and sulfur. Therefore, combustion is a chemical reaction. High amount of heat is released during the combustion process. Combustion has a high degree of importance in engineering. Ideal, complete and adiabatic combustion is presented. Six different fuels (carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, coal, oil and gas) react with air and oxygen enriched air as the oxidant at different stoichiometry values (stoichiometry => 1) and oxidant inlet temperature values. Reactants and combustion products specific enthalpy values change with an increase in the temperature and such specific enthalpy values are presented in a plot where one can notice the flame temperature definition. Physical properties of basic combustion reactants and products species are presented in an enthalpy vs temperature plot. The combustion technical performance at stoichiometry => 1 conditions is presented knowing the specific enthalpy values for combustion reactants and products, given as a function of temperature. Combustion products composition on both weight and mole basis is given in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. Also, flame temperature, oxidant to fuel ratio and fuel higher heating value (HHV) are presented in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. The provided output data and plots allow one to determine the major combustion performance laws and trends. In this course, the student gets familiar with the complete and adiabatic combustion of carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, coal, oil and gas, with no heat loss, with air and oxygen enriched air as the oxidant at different stoichiometry values (stoichiometry => 1) and oxidant inlet temperature values, physical properties of combustion reactants and products, combustion products composition on both weight and mole basis, flame temperature, oxidant to fuel ratio and higher heating value (HHV). As a result, basic combustion performance trends are presented.

### Advanced Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) for Power Application and Combustion Analysis

The ideal cycle for a simple gas turbine is the Brayton Cycle, also called the Joule Cycle. In this course material, the open, simple Brayton Cycle used for stationary power generation and combustion are presented. When dealing with Brayton Cycle, air, argon, helium and nitrogen are considered as the working fluid. When dealing with combustion, six different fuels (carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, coal, oil and gas) react with air and oxygen enriched air as the oxidant at different stoichiometry values (stoichiometry => 1) and oxidant inlet temperature values. For Brayton Cycle, thermal efficiency derivation is presented with a simple mathematical approach. Also, a T - s diagram and power cycle major performance trends (thermal efficiency, specific power output, power output, combustion products composition on weight and mole basis, specific fuel consumption and stoichiometry) are plotted in a few figures as a function of compression ratio, turbine inlet temperature and/or final combustion temperature and working fluid mass flow rate. It should be noted that this course material does not deal with costs (capital, operational or maintenance). The combustion technical performance at stoichiometry => 1 conditions is presented knowing the specifc enthalpy values for combustion reactants and products, given as a function of temperature. Combustion products composition on both weight and mole basis is given in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. Also, flame temperature, oxidant to fuel ratio and fuel higher heating value (HHV) are presented in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. The provided output data and plots allow one to determine the major combustion performance laws and trends. In this course material, the student gets familiar with the ideal Brayton Cycle and combustion and their T - s and h - T diagrams, operation and major performance trends.

### Power Cycles and Combustion Analysis Webinar

In this webinar material, the student gets familiar with the ideal simple and basic power cycles and combustion and their T - s, p - V and h - T diagrams, operation and major performance trends when air, argon, helium and nitrogen are considered as the working fluid. Performance Objectives: Introduce basic energy conversion engineering assumptions and equations Know basic elements of Carnot Cycle, Brayton Cycle, Otto Cycle, Diesel Cycle and combustion and their T - s, p - V and h - T diagrams Be familiar with Carnot Cycle, Brayton Cycle, Otto Cycle, Diesel Cycle and combustion operation Understand general Carnot Cycle, Brayton Cycle, Otto Cycle, Diesel Cycle and combustion performance trends

### Advanced Energy Conversion Analysis Webinar

In this webinar, the student gets familiar with the ideal simple and basic power cycles, power cycle components/processes and compressible flow and their T - s, p - V and h - T diagrams, operation and major performance trends when air, argon, helium and nitrogen are considered as the working fluid. Performance Objectives: Introduce basic energy conversion engineering assumptions and equations Know basic elements of Carnot Cycle, Brayton Cycle, Otto Cycle, Diesel Cycle, compression, combustion and expansion processes and compressible flow (nozzle, diffuser and thrust) and their T - s, p - V and h - T diagrams Be familiar with Carnot Cycle, Brayton Cycle, Otto Cycle, Diesel Cycle, compression, combustion, expansion and compressible flow (nozzle, diffuser and thrust) operation Understand general Carnot Cycle, Brayton Cycle, Otto Cycle, Diesel Cycle, compression, combustion, expansion and compressible flow (nozzle, diffuser and thrust) performance trends

### Power Cycle Components/Processes and Compressible Flow Analysis Webinar

In this webinar material, the student gets familiar with the ideal power cycle components/processes and compressible flow components and their T - s and h - T diagrams, operation and major performance trends when air, argon, helium and nitrogen are considered as the working fluid. Performance Objectives: Introduce basic energy conversion engineering assumptions and equations Know basic elements of compression, combustion and expansion processes and compressible flow (nozzle, diffuser and thrust) and their T - s and h - T diagrams Be familiar with compression, combustion, expansion and compressible flow (nozzle, diffuser and thrust) operation Understand general compression, combustion, expansion and compressible flow (nozzle, diffuser and thrust) performance trends

### Energy Conversion Ideal vs Real Operation Analysis Webinar

In this webinar, the engineering students and professionals get familiar with the simple and basic power cycles, power cycle components/processes and compressible flow and their T - s, p - V and h - T diagrams, ideal vs real operation and major performance trends when air is considered as the working fluid. Performance Objectives: Introduce basic energy conversion engineering assumptions and equations Know basic elements of Carnot Cycle, Brayton Cycle, Otto Cycle, Diesel Cycle, compression, combustion and expansion processes and compressible flow (nozzle, diffuser and thrust) and their T - s, p - V and h - T diagrams Be familiar with Carnot Cycle, Brayton Cycle, Otto Cycle, Diesel Cycle, compression, combustion, expansion and compressible flow (nozzle, diffuser and thrust) ideal vs real operation Understand general Carnot Cycle, Brayton Cycle, Otto Cycle, Diesel Cycle, compression, combustion, expansion and compressible flow (nozzle, diffuser and thrust) performance trends

### Energy Conversion Analysis Webinar

In this webinar material, the student gets familiar with the ideal simple and basic power cycles, power cycle components/processes and compressible flow and their T - s, p - V and h - T diagrams, operation and major performance trends when air is considered as the working fluid. Performance Objectives: Introduce basic energy conversion engineering assumptions and equations Know basic elements of Carnot Cycle, Brayton Cycle, Otto Cycle, Diesel Cycle, compression, combustion and expansion processes and compressible flow (nozzle, diffuser and thrust) and their T - s, p - V and h - T diagrams Be familiar with Carnot Cycle, Brayton Cycle, Otto Cycle, Diesel Cycle, compression, combustion, expansion and compressible flow (nozzle, diffuser and thrust) operation Understand general Carnot Cycle, Brayton Cycle, Otto Cycle, Diesel Cycle, compression, combustion, expansion and compressible flow (nozzle, diffuser and thrust) performance trends

### Combustion Analysis Webinar

In this webinar material, the student gets familiar with the ideal combustion and its h - T diagram, operation and major performance trends. Six different fuels (carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, coal, oil and gas) react with air and oxygen enriched air as the oxidant at different stoichiometry values (stoichiometry => 1) and oxidant inlet temperature values. Performance Objectives: Introduce basic energy conversion engineering assumptions and equations Know basic elements of combustion and its h - T diagram Be familiar with combustion operation Understand general combustion performance trends